By Stephen Law & Julian Baggini
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Extra info for 30-Second Philosophies: The 50 Most Thought-provoking Philosophies, Each Explained in Half a Minute
If a prediction fails, we learn that the hypothesis is false. This process, he thinks, describes the growth of scientific knowledge from Aristotelian physics, to Newtonian physics, to Einstein’s theories of relativity. Popper adds that what makes the claims of astrology, Freudian theory, and Marxism pseudo-scientific is that their practitioners don’t even try to refute them, and argue away apparent refutations. 3-SECOND THRASH Science grows by a process of conjecture and refutation. 3-MINUTE THOUGHT The financier and philanthropist George Soros was Popper’s student at the London School of Economics.
There is also no way to determine the overall merits of particular paradigms, since there is no view from the outside upon which to base such an assessment. RELATED PHILOSOPHIES POPPER’S CONJECTURES & REFUTATIONS 3-SECOND BIOGRAPHY THOMAS KUHN 1922–1996 30-SECOND TEXT Jeremy Stangroom After a scientific revolution, or “paradigm shift,” many scientific theories turn out to be garbage. ” Such things seem to point beyond themselves. A word is directed toward or about something other than the ink on the page.
SCIENCE & EPISTEMOLOGY SCIENCE & EPISTEMOLOGY GLOSSARY circular argument Consists of premises offered in support of a conclusion, where the conclusion is not just one of the premises. Here is a famous example: everything I clearly and distinctly perceive is true, I know this because God created me and He is no deceiver, and I know that because I clearly and distinctly perceive it, and everything I clearly and distinctly perceive is true. deduction An inference from a general claim to a particular conclusion.