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By Barbara A. West

Taking a principally chronological technique, a quick historical past of Australia appears at social, cultural, fiscal, and political developments within the country's lengthy background, laying off mild on its exact and intricate id. starting with the peopling of the continent approximately 60,000 years in the past, the quantity examines the early historical past and tradition of the Aboriginals. It keeps with the 1st documented sighting of the landmass through a ecu within the seventeenth century, by means of a dialogue of the colonial interval within the 18th and nineteenth centuries. From the Federation of 1901 to the Liberal govt of John Howard (1998 to 2007) and the exertions govt of John Rudd (2007 present), this new ebook explores Australia's dating to the British Crown, nationwide defense and schooling coverage, the position of activity and environmental matters, Aboriginal rights, women's background, and homosexual rights

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These land management practices indicate not only a deep knowledge of the local environment but also, contrary to what the early British settlers thought, a strong commitment to particular parcels of land. While Aboriginal people did not have large food surpluses because of a lack of domesticable plants and animals that would have allowed them to build permanent towns and cities, they did not simply live in a state of nature. Each community owned the rights to use parcels of land and their resources and managed those parcels with complex strategies of burning, planting, animal transfers, and animal management.

A second important structural commitment made by the colonial government was to provide land grants to officers and convict labor to work that land in order to promote self-sufficiency in food and other products. Free settlers who arrived in New South Wales were also eligible for land and convict labor. As part of this deal, Francis Grose, Phillip’s replacement prior to the arrival of the second governor, allowed convicts to be paid in rum, which motivated many of them far more than had other goods (Clark 1995, 20).

As such the Endeavour carried a number of the best English scientific minds of the time, including Joseph Banks, an Oxford-trained botanist and later Cook’s good friend. Cook was also secretly directed by his superior officers to search the South Seas for sites that might yield financial gain, specifically in New Zealand, which had been “discovered” by Abel Tasman in 1642. The expedition, by most accounts, was a success. As a result of the scientific explorations of Banks, Daniel Solander, and the others, about 1,400 new plant species and 1,000 animals were taken back to London.

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