New PDF release: A Complete Latin Grammar For The Use Of Students (1860)

By John William Donaldson

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Using the glosses we can work out quite a lot about the word order differences – and similarities – between the three languages. Other facts about Japanese and Welsh emerge from the glosses too: for example, Japanese has no equivalent to either ‘the’ or ‘a’, and Welsh has no word for ‘a’. You should now begin to see the importance of the gloss. On reaching a three-line example in the text, you should start at the bottom and work upwards, reading the translation first, then examining the gloss, then looking at the source language.

But it does take the plural -s suffix of nouns, as in Kim drives engines. Another way to use distributional evidence is to show that nouns and adjectives are MODIFIED by different word classes: they keep different company. So, like other nouns, engine can itself be modified by an adjective, such as electric. But it can’t be modified by an ADVERB such as electrically (the meaning intended in (8) is that the engine is electric, not Kim): (8) Kim is an electric engine driver. *Kim is an electrically engine driver.

So engine never has the same set of word forms as an adjective either. But it does take the plural -s suffix of nouns, as in Kim drives engines. Another way to use distributional evidence is to show that nouns and adjectives are MODIFIED by different word classes: they keep different company. So, like other nouns, engine can itself be modified by an adjective, such as electric. But it can’t be modified by an ADVERB such as electrically (the meaning intended in (8) is that the engine is electric, not Kim): (8) Kim is an electric engine driver.

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