By Charles R. Krahmalkov
This quantity contains the phonology, orthography, morphology, syntax, language and utilization of the Phoenician-Punic language. It includes examples from texts and dialects, together with fragments of a Punic drama, to deliver to lifestyles the grammatical description of this language. the outline of the literary language holds that stressful and element reference of a given kind of the verb is essentially a functionality of syntax, no longer morphology.
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Additional resources for A Phoenician-Punic Grammar (Handbuch Der Orientalistik)
1023 s u c a r t i m (SKRTM "you remember"); NPu Poen. ), et passim. This sibilant had by ca. C. 1). c c ( ayin): Pharyngeal obstruent / 7 . No orthographic device was used to represent this phoneme in Latin-letter Punic nor is it entirely evident that the phoneme survived in late Punic, as witnessed by its non-representation in Poen. 944 fel fel (P'L "he did") and Poen. 945 liful lifxiil (LP'L "to do"). 4 PHV felu ("they made"). P: Bilabial simple stop /p/ in Phoenician and Punic. ], as may be ascertained from the word-play between Poen.
1 y s "is ("man"), et passim. 2d. Reflex of Canaanite u Canaanite u was preserved: Punic Poen. 5 s e b u i m zebu(h)lm ("sacrificed ones"). 3. Secondary Vowels 3a. Anaptyctic e i a In certain nouns of the shape CVCC, the final consonant cluster may be opened by means of an unstressed anaptyctic vowel e i or, when the final root consonant is one of the series " hh c r, by the anaptyctic vowel a: Pu Poen. 1017 u m i r , var. u m e r "umir < "umr ( J MR "word"); but / 7 7 / 4 . 1 / 2 , 8 iyrsiyira(h) (TRH "month"); Diosc.
Pil. 51 Ifi-ru-um-mu Hirom ("Hiram"); Esar. iii 16 Ab-di—mi-il-kuut-ti \Abd-milkot ("Servant of Milkot"). As in other West Semitic languages; vowel reduction in Phoenician was related to word-stress. Word-stress and vowel reduction in Phoenician were essentially identical to Hebrew: full reduction to zero or partial reduction, with resultant shewa. In Latin-letter Punic and Neo-Punic, simple vocal shewa was variously indicated in the orthography by e iy; frequently, vocal shewa was colored by (assimilated to) a following vowel.