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Extra resources for Archaic Syntax in Indo-European: The Spread of Transitivity in Latin and French
On the basis of this evidence, Uhlenbeck concluded that in these languages the object of transitive verbs and the subject of intransitive verbs are on the same grammatical level and that the transitive conjugation in fact is a passive (1916b:190-191). Uhlenbeck also established a parallel with Basque, where the pronominal element referring to the subject of the intransitive verb is identical to the pronominal element referring to the object of the transitive verb; both pronominal elements are different from the one referring to the subject of transitive verbs.
And failing that, he could not propose that Pre-Indo-European was an active language" (Lehmann 1993:222). It is the recognition of active languages as being a specific type that allows to re-evaluate the features that up to now have been very difficult to account for. In their monumental work Gamkrelidze and Ivanov present their arguments on the basis of which they posit an active language system for PreIndo-European or early Proto-Indo-European. 2; cf. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov 1984: Chapter 5; Lehmann 1993).
Analysis of written documents reveals that there too changes took place over time, such as the gradual shift toward right-branching structures, the increasing use of subordinate clauses instead of participle orAccusativus cum Infinitivo constructions (henceforth ACI-constructions), and so forth. Consequently, Latin texts - even those from the Classical period, with all the precautions necessary - are useful for the analysis of language change. In addition, the well-known difference in Latin between urbanitas and rusticitas is a somewhat different matter; it is found in vocabulary and phonetics rather than in grammar (cf.