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By Robert M. Edsel

"An excellent account of a little-known American attempt to save lots of Italy' in the course of international warfare II."—Tom BrokawWhen Hitler's armies occupied Italy in 1943, in addition they seized keep watch over of mankind's maximum cultural treasures. As that they had performed all through Europe, the Nazis may well now plunder the masterpieces of the Renaissance, the treasures of the Vatican, and the antiquities of the Roman Empire.

On the eve of the Allied invasion, normal Dwight Eisenhower empowered a brand new type of soldier to guard those old riches. In may possibly 1944 not likely American heroes—artist Deane Keller and student Fred Hartt—embarked from Naples at the treasure hunt of an entire life, monitoring billions of greenbacks of lacking artwork, together with works via Michelangelo, Donatello, Titian, Caravaggio, and Botticelli. With the German military taking flight up the Italian peninsula, orders got here from the top degrees of the Nazi govt to move truckloads of artwork north around the border into the Reich. status within the approach used to be common Karl Wolff, a top-level Nazi officer. As German forces blew up the superb bridges of Florence, basic Wolff commandeered the good collections of the Uffizi Gallery and Pitti Palace, later risking his existence to barter a mystery Nazi give up with American spymaster Allen Dulles.

Brilliantly researched and vividly written, the hot York instances bestselling Saving Italy brings readers from Milan and the close to destruction of The final Supper to the interior sanctum of the Vatican and at the back of closed doorways with the preeminent Allied and Axis leaders: Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and Churchill; Hitler, Göring, and Himmler.

An unforgettable tale of epic thievery and political intrigue, Saving Italy is a testomony to heroism on behalf of artwork, tradition, and historical past.

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40 Some Orvietans did resist. Master John tells us that when Parenzo took office in February 1199, the Orvietans greeted him with great relief and rejoicing, a scene evoking Christ's entry into Jerusalem. But Master John also mentions opposition and civil war. The ensuing conflict is portrayed as a struggle between heresy and orthodoxy, but it surely had as much to do with Orvietan resistance to papal overlordship as it did with Cathar dualism. 42 The heretics, Master John writes, reacted with violence: on the first day of Lent, the whole city began to fight with swords, lances, and stones, in the main piazza and the towers and palaces surrounding it.

20 Orvietans tended to be more flexible, and they perhaps were more typical of medieval Italians than the great noble houses of Florence or Rome. The patrillineage, after all, served most usefully as a way for elites to maintain control over strategic properties like urban forts. Families without great assets had less incentive to operate as patrilineages and could afford to be flexible. 22 In this register, begun by the city government around 1260, a notary made copies of wills, codicils, and donations that described property transfers that were taxable because they were valued over 25 libre in the currency of Cortona, 23 The first: volume contains eighty-eight thirteenth-century wills.

Seventeen are the wills of women, forty-three of men. Some men did follow the patrilineal custom characteristic of Roman elites. Eighteen of the forty-three male testators in the Liber donationum had legitimate sons and made them their heirs. According to patrilineal custom, in the absence of sons the estate was left to more distant kin, traced 48 THE POLITICS OF THE CATHARS through the male line. In 1258, the Orvietan Maffeo Berizi gave his daughter a dowry but no further inheritance. 24 However, patrilineal exclusion of women from ownership of any portion of the estate beyond a dowry was not the invariable rule.

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